Amsterdam is the official capital of the Netherlands (Nederland). This country is also known as Holland, which is not correct. The fact is that there are twelve provinces in the Netherlands. South and North Holland are two of them. As for Amsterdam, it is located in North Holland (Noord-Holland), but is not the capital of the region. This function is entrusted to the city of Haarlem.
The Netherlands is located in mainland Europe, northwest of Germany and northeast of Belgium. The country also owns several islands in the Caribbean Sea (Caraïbische Zee). The shores of the Dutch mainland are washed by the North Sea (Noordzee).
On a map of the Netherlands, Amsterdam can be seen in the northwest, on the coast of the IJsselmeer. The Amstel River flows through the city. It forms a network of canals, thanks to which the Dutch capital is called the Venice of the North: there are four main canals (Singel, Herengracht, Keizersgracht, Prinsengracht), more than 1500 bridges, 90 islands.
Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands, so getting here is no problem. There is an international airport not far from the city, and you can also take a train or bus. And at the piers of the cruise port dozens of ships are docked daily.
Amsterdam or Royal Airport Schiphol (Koninklijke Luchthaven Schiphol or Amsterdam Airport Schiphol) is the largest airport in the Netherlands and is located 18 km from the city. Planes arrive here from many countries around the world, including Russia.
The schedule can be found on the official website of the airport: www.schiphol.nl.
From Airport Schiphol you can get to the capital of the Netherlands by train, which arrives at the main station of the city. Trains run at all hours of the day: during busy hours three or four trains, at night one train per hour. All platforms are located underground, under the central hall Airport Schiphol. Passes can be purchased from special machines, among which there are devices that accept bank cards.
From the airport you can get to Amsterdam by bus. The trip takes about half an hour. Buses leave the airport several times an hour during the day and once an hour at night. You can also get to Amsterdam by cab or by booking a transfer.
The main railway station of Amsterdam (Amsterdam Centraal Station) is located in the city center, on Stationplein, close to the bay. Here come trains from many cities in Europe. So, from Brussels you can reach here in 2.5 hours, from Paris - 3.5 hours, from Berlin - 10 hours. There is a direct train from Moscow. The trip takes 36 hours. On the way, it stops in Minsk, Brest, Warsaw, Berlin.
More information about the station and the schedule here: www.ns.nl/en/stations.
There are several bus stations in Amsterdam. One of them is located near the train station, at Stationsplein. There is also a stop at Julianaplein 1A, at Prins Hendrikkade.
Most European bus flights are served by FlixBus, and the international company "Eurolines", including flights from Russia.